Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut is located on the west bank of the Nile opposite the city of Luxor. It was built in the Deir el-Bahari, at the foot of a rock face forming a natural amphitheater dedicated to the goddess Hathor. Two other funerary complexes were built here, that of Mentuhotep II and that of Thutmose III. In ancient times there was also a temple dedicated to Amenhotep I and Queen Ahmose Nefertari but it was demolished to make room for the temple of Hatshepsut.
Hatshepsut ruled Egypt from 1478 to 1458 BC. (XVIII dynasty), becoming the second woman to acquire the title of Pharaoh after Nefrusobek of the XII dynasty. Initially, she ruled as regent in place of her young nephew/stepson Tuthmosis III but never left power to the rightful heir to the throne, not even when the young man reached the age suitable to rule the country. The funerary sanctuary was built in honor of the solar God Amon-Ra and consists of three levels of terraces that reach a total height of about 30 meters. The three levels are connected by two ceremonial ramps oriented towards the sanctuary of Amon.
The Temple Of Hatshepsut At Deir El-Bahri was consecrated to the goddess Hathor, one of the oldest and most venerated deities in all Egyptian history. In the tombs, she was depicted with the epithet Lady of the dead. She was commonly depicted in the bovine form with a solar disc with uraeus between her horns, or in anthropomorphic form, but always with the solar disc between her horns. She was the goddess of joy, love, motherhood, and beauty, but she was also worshiped as the goddess of music, dance, foreign lands, and fertility. Hathor assimilated over time the peculiarities of many local gods, accumulating very varied attributes, to the point of being considered both mother, bride, and daughter of Ra, as well as the mother of Horus, like Isis. Her sanctuary is located at the southern end of the intermediate south colonnade. The hypostyle hall, consisting of twelve columns with a Hathoric capital, housed several representations of Hatshepsut, Hathor, and Amon. Among the remaining reliefs, one can appreciate the one depicting the sovereign intent on drinking milk from the breasts of the goddess Hathor in bovine form.
Perhaps less well known than the better-known temples of Karnak and Luxor, the temple of Hatshepsut is a true treasure of ancient Egypt, located on the west bank of the Nile, not far from the Valley of the King.
Seen from afar, the temple of Hatshepsut looks like a majestic inlaid casket, carved into the hot rock of Deir al-Bahri. The three rows of colonnades that compose it, arranged one on top of the other, create a unique and hypnotic optical effect, alternating ochre-colored bands with dark rectangles, all equal to each other.
A temple that can be considered as a meeting point between Egyptian and classical architecture, where on the back walls, especially on the lower level, it is still possible to admire glimpses of the primitive colors, unchanged by the passage of time. The temple dates back to the 18th dynasty and is today, incredibly, in excellent condition, despite the damage suffered over the centuries due to the wrath of Thutmosis III who, out of jealousy, tried to destroy it.
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