Islamic History in Egypt

Islamic History in Egypt

Islamic History in Egypt

Islamic History in Egypt after the period of the Pharaohs came the rule of the Persians, but it ended at the hands of Alexander the Great, and the Ptolemies ruled the country until the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony in Actium, and Roman rule and Byzantine rule came until the Islamic conquest came at the hands of the leader Amr ibn al-Aas, and Egypt became an Islamic state and was called Fustat.

Early Islamic Period in Egypt

Islamic history began in Egypt in the year 639 at the hands of the leader Amr ibn al-Aas after the defeat of the Byzantine army in the Battle of Heliopolis, and the conflicts continued until the conquest and restoration of Alexandria. After the restoration of Alexandria, Amr ibn al-Aas chose a new location to settle near the Byzantine citadel of Babylon and called it Fustat, and Egypt continued under Islamic governments.

Umayyad Period

It is certain that the Umayyad Caliphate was one of the most prominent Islamic caliphates. Therefore, the leader of the state became known as the Caliph. The Umayyads ruled the Islamic empire for nearly a century The Islamic Empire was administered by the Umayyad Caliphate. Muawiyah became caliph after the First Islamic Civil War Muawiyah I established his capital in Damascus The Umayyad Caliphate ended when the Abbasids seized power.

Abbasids Period

The Abbasid Caliphate arose after the defeat of the Umayyads, and the Fatimid Caliphate took control of Egypt and established a new capital and called it Cairo until the Fatimid Caliphate fell at the hands of the Ayyubid Caliphate at the hands of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, There is no doubt that Egypt, despite all the changes in administration and rule, continued its element. Important in the Islamic world, Egypt and its capital also had wonderful geographical importance, and with the change in rule over the years, the Egyptian people also changed until they converted to Islam.

Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi

  • He was born in 1137 AD in Tikrit, Iraq. He studied the Qur’an, theology, astronomy, mathematics, and law.
  • One of the most famous Islamic historical figures in the West comes from Sunni Kurdish origins in Syria.
  • A military commander under the Shiite Fatimid Caliphate that built Cairo
  • Saladin al-Ayyubi defended Egypt and the Levant from Crusader invasions in the second half of the twelfth century AD.
  • Saladin was admired for his noble and courageous behavior during his campaigns
  • It is possible to see Saladin’s material legacy in Cairo. The best example of this is the construction of the Cairo Citadel, which was named after him, the Citadel of Saladin.

the Citadel of Saladin

Byzantine Rule

It is certain that the entry of Islam into Egypt was at a more than wonderful time. The Byzantine Empire regained Egypt only recently. Due to the theological difference between the Coptic Church and the Byzantines, Egyptian Christianity was persecuted by the Byzantine authorities. The Rightly Guided Caliphate simply asked non-Muslims in the occupied territories to pay a tax in return. Exempting them from military service.

Mamluk and Ottoman Period

The Bahri Mamluks were able to seize power when the Ayyubid Sultan Salah Ayyub died The Mamluks formed the backbone of the Egyptian army during the Ayyubid Caliphate The Bahri Mamluks settled in Cairo and oversaw one of Egypt’s greatest periods of prosperity after antiquity. Among the most impressive buildings indicative of Mamluk rule are the major Mamluk shrines, such as the Qalawun complex on Mu’izz al-Din Street in Islamic Cairo.

Ottoman Period

Due to the increasing weakness of the Mamluks’ grip on power in Egypt. Thanks to technology and organization, Sultan Selim I, King of the Ottoman Empire, took advantage. The Ottoman army defeated the Mamluks and expanded the Ottoman Empire’s authority over Egypt. There is no doubt that the Mamluks continued as the ruling class in Egypt, It is certain that the Mamluks tried several times to restore independence from Ottoman rule, to no avail.


Frequently Asked Questions
How did Islam begin in Egypt?
The Islamization of Egypt occurred after the 7th century Arab conquest of Egypt, in which the Islamic Rashidun Caliphate seized control of Egypt from the Christian Byzantine Empire.
What was the religion before Islam in Egypt?
The majority of Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, which was the dominant religion in Egypt before Islam. There are only a handful of Jews left in Cairo.
What Islamic empire was in Egypt?
Ottoman rulers of Egypt, In 1517 Selim I conquered Egypt. Until the relative autonomy of the Muhammad Ali dynasty in the nineteenth century, Egypt remained a part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Until the proclamation of the kingdom in 1914.
Did Egyptians speak Arabic before Islam?
Arabic was spoken in parts of Egypt such as the Eastern Desert and Sinai before Islam. However, Nile Valley Egyptians slowly adopted Arabic as a written language following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the seventh century.
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